Dragonflies and Damselflies: References

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Reference Link. Citation Primary biogeographic zone Disciplinary domains URL Usage
May 2002a. May, M. L. (2002) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the damselfly genus Enallagma and related taxa (Odonata: Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Systematic Entomology 27: 387-408, figs. 1-8. Afrotropical
West Palearctic
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Key words

The zygopteran genus Enallagma has been the subject of numerous behavioural and ecological studies, but phylogenetic relationships among species have been examined only within eastern North America, and even the composition and diagnosis of the genus are unclear on a world-wide basis. Most authorities currently recognize about seventy species within Enallagma, comprising two major radiations, in North America and Africa. This study, using morphological data, demonstrates that the North American and a few related Palaearctic species form a monophyletic group that is quite distinct from the African species. The latter are themselves divided into at least three, and probably four, separate clades, one of which may be related to E. parvum of India. Consequently, three of Kennedy's long disused genera, Africallagma, Amphiallagma and Proischnura (Kennedy, 1920) are resurrected and two new genera, Azuragrion gen.n. and Pinheyagrion gen.n. are established for the remaining African taxa. Finally, Enallagma is divided into two subgenera, Enallagma s.s., the typical ‘bluets’, including many North American, Holarctic and Palaearctic species, and Chromatallagma subgen.n., comprising a group of species of more variable colour that is confined to North America, the Caribbean and northernmost South America.